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From this page you can download add-on modules to expand your library.

Click on the name of the module to download. Once you download the file, double-click it to execute the installer and follow the on-screen instructions. Items in green are paid modules that require an unlock key.

See also Unofficial 3rd-party modules

 English (43)

LSB Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek Dictionaries (LSB Bundle)  (LSBHGD)
15.3 MB 07-Sep-2022
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): The Lockman Foundation
Module version: 1.2
Description:
The LSBHGD Dictionary is part of a bundle with the LSB, and cannot be purchased separately.

Legacy Standard Bible

In the history of English Bible translations, the King James Version is the most well-known. The time-honored version of 1611, itself a revision of the Bishops’ Bible of 1568, became the basis for the English Revised Version, which appeared in 1881 (New Testament) and 1885 (Old Testament). Its American counterpart, a product of both British and American scholarship, was published in 1901. Recognizing the values of the American Standard Version, The Lockman Foundation felt an urgency to preserve the ASV while incorporating recent discoveries of Hebrew and Greek textual sources and rendering it into more current English. This resulted in the New American Standard Bible, a translation based upon the time-honored principles of translation of the ASV and KJV, along with other linguistic tools and biblical scholarship.
The Legacy Standard Bible reflects another iteration of such preservation and refinement. Worked on by a core translation team in conjunction with pastors and educators from different countries, it is designed to honor, maintain, and advance the tradition represented by the NASB.

theWord Features

LSB Bible

  • Searchable text (via regular text and Strong’s Numbers)
  • Strong’s Numbers
  • Words of Jesus in Red
  • Headings
  • Paragraphs
  • Cross references
  • Footnotes
  • Strong’s Numbers linked to LSBHGD Dictionary

LSBHGD Dictionary

  • Fully searchable text
  • Easy navigation via topics tree display.
  • Strong’s Numbers
  • Greek Lemmas
  • Hebrew Lemmas
  • Special Text Colors
    • Normal: Text
    • Usage: LSB Usage
    • Hyperlink: G10
    • Transliteration: Melek
    • Hebrew: מֶלֶךְ
    • Greek: κοδράντης
     
An Interpretive Lexicon of New Testament Greek  (Interp Lex NT Greek)
1.4 MB 10-Jul-2022
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Brendsel, Daniel J.; Ross, William A.; Beale, Gregory K.
Module version: 1.0
Description:

This Lexicon has a very specific and important purpose: to make the process of New Testament interpretation easier and more accurate by providing a comprehensive yet concise interpretation of Greek words that determine logical relationships between statements or clauses.

These words (prepositions, adverbs, particles, relative pronouns, conjunctions and other connectors) are essential to revealing and supporting the main ideas in the text and are especially useful for interpreting logical arguments, such as those found in the epistles.

While not exhaustive, this Interpretive Lexicon lists the vast majority of Greek connecting words, especially those that are notorious for being some of the most difficult words to translate.

Features include:

  • Concise definitions for quick analysis.
  • Examples of where the word is found in Scripture.
  • Page references to several major lexical resources for further translation options and nuances.
  • Interpretation of the broader categories of each word (for example: locative (in, among, on), means-end (with, by), grounds (because, on account of), temporal (while, at), and so on.

The interpretive feature of the book--evaluating the word's function in discourse--is tremendously helpful for the exegetical process, allowing the translator to closely follow the logical flow of the text with greater efficiency. This Interpretive Lexicon is a valuable handbook for student, pastor, and scholar alike.

theWord Features:

  • Verse popups
  • Abbreviation popups
  • Many internal links
  • Word lookup via right-click-menu
  • Fully searchable text
  • Footnotes
  • Page numbers noted for BDAG (00 and 79)
  • Easy navigation of topics via topics tree display.
  • Special Text Colors
    • Normal: Text
    • Hyperlink: Luke 20:21
    • Greek: χρησις
    • Hebrew: א
    • Page Number: [pg21>
     
Pocket Dictionary of Christian Spirituality  (PD Christian Spirituality)
3.1 MB 31-Mar-2022
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Thorsen, Don
Module version: 1.0
Description:

The Pocket Dictionary of Christian Spirituality is an A to Z introduction and resource for curious newcomers and novice students of spirituality. From our first call to Abba until we arrive at Zion, the heavenly Jerusalem, Don Thorsen charts the Christian spiritual pilgrimage through its many traditions, schools of thought, and tested practices.

Among the over 300 definitions you’ll find

  • terms and ideas
  • traditions and movements
  • practices and rituals
  • texts and theology

A reliable guide and launching pad for learning, the Pocket Dictionary of Christian Spirituality is a basic resource for the pilgrimage travel bag.

theWord Features

  • Verse popups
  • Fully searchable text
  • Easy navigation of topics via topics tree display.
  • Special Text Colors
    • Normal: Text
    • Hyperlink: Link
    • Page Number: [pg1>
     
Pocket Dictionary of Apologetics and Philosophy of Religion  (PD Apologetics & Philosphy of Religion)
0.8 MB 30-Mar-2022
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Evans, C. Stephen
Module version: 1.0
Description:

For philosophers, the pursuit of truth travels on precise definitions. For Christian apologists, the defense of the faith is founded on the defining Word. And for beginning students of either discipline, the difference between success and frustration begins with understanding the terms and ideas and identifying the thinkers and movements.

The Pocket Dictionary of Apologetics Philosophy of Religion is designed to be a companion to your study of these two related disciplines. Among its 300 entries are

  • terms, from a posteriori to worldview
  • apologists, from Abelard to Van Til
  • philosophers of religion, from Alston to Wolterstorff
  • movements, from analytic philosophy to voluntarism
  • apologetic arguments, from the cosmological to the wager
  • theologies, from Arminianism to Zoroastrianism

Here is an affordable and easily accessible “help key” for your readings, lectures, writing assignments and exam preparation. It’s a must-have study aid for any student who expects to cogitate on coherentism or ruminate on Ricouer.

theWord Features

  • Verse popups
  • Fully searchable text
  • Easy navigation of topics via topics tree display.
  • Special Text Colors
    • Normal: Text
    • Hyperlink: Link | Jn 3:36
     
Pocket Dictionary of Biblical Studies  (PD Biblical Studies)
1.1 MB 30-Mar-2022
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Patzia, Arthur. G;Petrotta, Anthony. J
Module version: 1.0
Description:

So many words about the Word. The study of anything seems to generate its own special vocabulary, and biblical studies is no different. What’s more, it’s got nearly a two-thousand-year lead on you! How can you catch up? Here is the answer!

If you are puzzled by parataxis or rankled by recensions, the Pocket Dictionary of Biblical Studies is the companion you need. Whether you are studying Old Testament or New Testament or both at once, this little book is your private tutor, your ever-ready guide to over three hundred biblical-studies terms. Here’s your glossary for reading course textbooks, your decoder for listening to lectures, your review sheet for cramming for finals and your “help” key for writing research papers.

Among the more than 300 terms defined you’ll discover

  • types of biblical criticism, from genre criticism to tradition criticism
  • Greek and Latin terms, from agrapha to vaticinium ex eventu
  • German terms, from Frühkatholizismus to Wissenschaft
  • ancient texts, from Aleppo Codex to Zadokite Document
  • literary features, from acrostic to woe oracle
  • theories, from the Augustinian hypothesis to the Yahwist source
  • textual criticism terms, from codex to Western text

Written by Arthur G. Patzia and Anthony J. Petrotta, two biblical studies professors who know what you need to know, Pocket Dictionary of Biblical Studies will be your essential guide into a fascinating world of understanding.

theWord Features

  • Verse popups
  • Fully searchable text
  • Easy navigation of topics via topics tree display.
  • Special Text Colors
    • Normal: Text |
    • Hyperlink: Link | Jn 3:36
    • Greek: λογος
    • Hebrew: א
     
Pocket Dictionary of Theological Terms  (PD Theological Terms)
0.8 MB 29-Mar-2022
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Grenz, Stanley. J; Guretzki, David
Module version: 1.0
Description:

Beginning to study theology is like stepping into a conversation that has been going on for two thousand years.

How do you take part in this conversation–or even make sense of it–if you don’t understand the vocabulary or know the contributions made by other participants?

The Pocket Dictionary of Theological Terms is the perfect companion to your theological studies. Among its three hundred-plus definitions are

  • English terms, from accomodation to wrath of God
  • foreign terms, from a posteriori to via media
  • theological movements and traditions, from the Alexandrian School to Wesleyanism
  • theologians, from Anselm of Canterbury to Ulrich Zwingli

Here is an affordable and easily accessible resource for your theological readings, lectures and writing assignments. It’s a must-have for every beginning theological student!

theWord Features

  • Verse popups
  • Fully searchable text
  • Easy navigation of topics via topics tree display.
  • Special Text Colors
    • Normal: Text
    • Hyperlink: Link | Jn 3:36
     
Pocket Guide to World Religions  (PG World Religions)
15 MB 04-Mar-2022
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Corduan, Winfried
Module version: 1.0
Description:

Have you ever wondered . . .

  • what the red dot on an Indian woman’s forehead means?
  • whether all Buddhist monks practice martial arts?
  • if the Emperor of Japan is still considered a god?

Here is a concise, informative guide for anyone looking for answers to basic questions about the world’s varied religions. In short, incisive chapters, Winfried Corduan introduces readers to twelve of the world’s major religions, including Baha’i, Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Daoism, Hinduism, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Parsi, Shinto and Sikhism. For each, he offers brief descriptions of its name, numbers and distribution, key symbols, history, Scriptures, major beliefs, subgroups, worship practices, home practices, clothing, diet and calendar. Also included are even briefer descriptions of sixteen new religious movements and traditional or tribal religions.

This book is for students, pastors and other busy people who want the quick, bare-facts scoop on current religions.

theWord Features

  • Fully searchable text
  • Easy navigation of topics via topics tree display.
  • Special Text Colors
    • Normal: Text
    • Hyperlink: Link
    • Page Number: [pg1>
     
Pocket Dictionary of the Reformed Tradition  (PD Reformed Tradition)
2.4 MB 25-Feb-2022
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Kapic, Kelly. M;Lugt, Wesley Vander
Module version: 1.0
Description:

Beginning to study Reformed theology is like stepping into a family conversation that has been going on for five hundred years. How do you find your bearings and figure out how to take part in this conversation without embarrassing yourself?

The Pocket Dictionary of the Reformed Tradition takes on this rich, boisterous and varied tradition in its broad contours, filling you in on its common affirmations as well as its family tensions. Here you will find succinct and reliable entries on

Latin terms, such as ad fontes and sola fide

Theologians, from Calvin to Torrance

Confessions, such as the Belgic and Westminster

Doctrines, such as atonement and sanctification

Apologists, such as Francis Schaeffer and Cornelius Van Til

And much more.

The Pocket Dictionary of the Reformed Tradition is ready to assist you over the rough parts of readings, lectures, conversations and blogs. It will also be a companionable and concise introduction to one of the great Christian traditions.

theWord Features

  • Verse popups
  • Fully searchable text
  • FootNote(s)
  • Easy navigation of topics via topics tree display.
  • Special Text Colors
    • Normal: Text
    • Hyperlink: Link
    • Page Number: [pg1>
    • Greek: λογος
    • Hebrew: א
     
Theological Dictionary of the New Testament TDNT (10 vols.)  (TDNT)
29.6 MB 25-Feb-2022
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Kittel, Gerhard; Friedrich, Gerhard
Module version: 1.2
Description:
This monumental reference work, complete in ten volumes, is the authorized and unabridged translation of the famous Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament, known commonly as “Kittel” and considered by many scholars to be the best New Testament Dictionary ever compiled. Mediating between ordinary lexicography and the specific task of exposition, TDNT treats more than 2,300 theologically significant New Testament words, including the more important prepositions and numbers as well as many proper names from the Old Testament. Presenting the words in the order of the Greek alphabet, TDNT typically discusses the following for each word: its secular Greek background, its role in the Old Testament, its use in extra biblical Jewish literature, and its varied uses in the New Testament. Substantial bibliographies and footnotes supplement the articles. It is designed for the intermediate and advanced Greek student. Each significant Greek word of the New Testament is comprehensively presented and takes account of its:

  • Greek background
  • role in the Old Testament (in the Hebrew and the Septuagint)
  • use by Philo, Josephus, and in the rabbinical literature
  • uses in the New Testament and its various genres
  • appearances (where appropriate) in the Apostolic Fathers

More than 100 distinguished scholars contributed to the work, including specialists in Old Testament, Septuagint, Hellenistic, Semitic and Rabbinic studies. Extensive bibliographies and detailed footnoting supplement the articles.

theWord Features:

  • Verse popups
  • Fully searchable text
  • Easy navigation of topics via topics tree display.
  • Greek Lemmas
  • Strong’s Numbers
  • Special Text Colors
    • Normal: Text
    • Hyperlink: Grundmann | 2 Tm. 3:1 ff. | 1 |
    • Volume & Page Number: v1 p162
    • Latin: supra
    • Transliteration: qādēs̆: ṭāhēr
    • Greek: σωμάτων
    • Hebrew: מִשְׁפָּט

Note: This is the unabridged version which is 10 volumes in print.

     
Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament (Vol 1-17)  (TDOT)
85.9 MB 25-Feb-2022
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Ringgren, Helmer; Fabry, Heinz-Josef; Botterweck, G. Johannes; Gzella, Holger
Module version: 1.2
Description:

WILLIAM B. EERDMANS PUBLISHING COMPANY

GRAND RAPIDS, MICHIGAN / CAMBRIDGE, U.K.

www.eerdmans.com

Note: theWORD Bible Software version information available at bottom.

Series Editors: G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren, Heinz-Josef Fabry

 This multivolume work is still proving to be as fundamental to Old Testament studies as its companion set, the Kittel-Friedrich Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, has been to New Testament studies.

 Beginning with 'ābh ('āb), “father,” and continuing through the alphabet, the TDOT volumes present in-depth discussions of the key Hebrew and Aramaic words in the Old Testament. Leading scholars of various religious traditions (including Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, Anglican, Greek Orthodox, and Jewish) and from many parts of the world (Denmark, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Israel, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States) have been carefully selected for each article by editors Botterweck, Ringgren, and Fabry and their consultants, George W. Anderson, Henri Cazelles, David Noel Freedman, Shemaryahu Talmon, and Gerhard Wallis.

 The intention of the writers is to concentrate on meaning, starting from the more general, everyday senses and building to an understanding of theologically significant concepts. To avoid artificially restricting the focus of the articles, TDOT considers under each keyword the larger groups of words that are related linguistically or semantically. The lexical work includes detailed surveys of a word’s occurrences, not only in biblical material but also in other ancient Near Eastern writings. Sumerian, Akkadian, Egyptian, Ethiopic, Ugaritic, and Northwest Semitic sources are surveyed, among others, as well as the Qumran texts and the Septuagint; and in cultures where no cognate word exists, the authors often consider cognate ideas.

 TDOT’s emphasis, though, is on Hebrew terminology and on biblical usage. The contributors employ philology as well as form-critical and traditio-historical methods, with the aim of understanding the religious statements in the Old Testament. Extensive bibliographical information adds to the value of this reference work.

 This English edition attempts to serve the needs of Old Testament students without the linguistic background of more advanced scholars; it does so, however, without sacrificing the needs of the latter. Ancient scripts (Hebrew, Greek, etc.) are regularly transliterated in a readable way, and meanings of foreign words are given in many cases where the meanings might be obvious to advanced scholars. Where the Hebrew text versification differs from that of English Bibles, the English verse appears in parentheses. Such features will help all earnest students of the Bible to avail themselves of the manifold theological insights contained in this monumental work.

Volume Prefaces and Information

 EDITORS’ PREFACE Volume I

A Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament is a bold venture any time it is undertaken. At no time can the claim be made that scholarship has attained such a conclusive position in its research that the results will continue to be valid for all time. And yet, one may cherish the hope that the present is not a bad time to launch out on such a project. The form-critical and traditio-historical methods have been refined to such a point that one can expect rather certain results. Advances in related scholarly fields make it possible to use Akkadian and Egyptian material with greater certainty and Ugaritic material with a proper degree of caution. Finally, semantic research in general philology has given us insights into the problems involved to the extent that we can justifiably expect help from this area too, even though a general consensus probably has not yet been achieved.

This dictionary cannot intervene in the methodological discussion among the various schools of semantics, neither can it favor a particular theory of semantic fields. Its approach can be outlined as follows: Etymologies are carefully explored, word families defined, cases of borrowing and semantic transfer established. A semantic field is constructed and delineated by examination of the semantic relationships among synonyms and antonyms. Syntactic analysis exhibits lexemic distinctive features, contrastive pairs, etc. The use of fixed combinations of words in formulas and schemata is noted. Structural analysis reveals the use of signals, verbal metaphors, and tense metaphors. The situational context, finally, brings space and time closer to us with information about the historical setting. Thus a comprehensive analysis enables a single word to reveal a bit of history, culture, religion, society, and human self-understanding.

But in this context, what is meant by “theological”? Since the Old Testament certainly “speaks about God,” the purpose of this dictionary is to analyze its religious statements with the aid of all accessible resources and to present them in their peculiarity, in order to shed as much light as possible on the connections of the content of Old Testament thought in a given text, tradition, or institution. Thus “theology” is understood primarily in a descriptive sense, just as one might speak of the theology of Augustine or the theology of Luther.

It is obvious that such an undertaking could not be accomplished by one, or even by a small group of scholars. To be sure, a small group might be able to produce a work that would be essentially more homogeneous, but this would be done at the cost of completeness and reliability. The only way to attain a well-rounded discussion of the problems of Old Testament theology is to draw upon the knowledge of a large number of scholars.

Viewed from its international perspective, contemporary Old Testament scholarship is not characterized by homogeneity. In light of this, the range of potential understanding would be severely narrowed if the contributors were limited to a single exegetical school. But if a Theological Dictionary is produced on a more international and interconfessional basis, a broader treatment of the issues can be expected. Fortunately, in our science there have already been cooperative efforts transcending national and confessional lines, making it possible to undertake the present project along similar lines. It is the hope of the editors that such an approach will encourage objectivity in this work and make possible a more comprehensive interpretation of the material involved. What is lost in homogeneity will, one hopes, be regained in the diversity of viewpoints.

Since this dictionary is restricted to Old Testament material throughout, the emphasis in each article is on the Hebrew terminology that is used. At the same time, the interconfessional structure of the work necessitates that attention be given to the Septuagint. The Qumran texts are taken into consideration briefly (as much as possible), but it is extremely difficult to arrange material in the Pseudepigraphic literature under Hebrew words. Also, little attention can be given to Rabbinic literature, since it is very hard to determine the post quem dates of materials in this corpus. Likewise the New Testament adoption and application of Old Testament ideas falls outside the scope of this work. The reader should consult the Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, edited by Kittel and Friedrich, for the use of pertinent synonyms to Old Testament terms in Rabbinic and New Testament literature.

It is impossible to understand the Old Testament fully without comparing it with extrabiblical literature of the ancient Near East. To be sure, such a comparison can be carried to an extreme, so as to make Old Testament faith appear to be only a particular form of ancient Near Eastern thought. But at the same time it can serve to emphasize more clearly the uniqueness of Old Testament faith as it is expressed in the credo, the cult, and the law, and thus to enhance greatly one’s understanding of Old Testament thought. In this latter endeavor we have not intended to spare ourselves the trouble of elaborating on the extrabiblical material as fully as possible in the narrow scope of a dictionary. Therefore, we have not been content merely to examine words that are etymologically related to the Hebrew term being discussed, but have also given attention especially to similar thoughts and ideas even in cases where no word exists that corresponds etymologically with the Hebrew word.

There is great value in analyzing words semantically. However, the major goal of all the studies in this work is to present the fundamental concepts intended by the respective words and terms, the traditions in which they occur, and the different nuances of meaning they have in each tradition. It is in this area that lexical contributions can render a worthwhile service as individual building blocks in the process of reconstructing an Old Testament theology.

The conclusion of the first volume of the German edition is an appropriate occasion for us to thank all those who have contributed to the realization of this dictionary. Its initiators, Christel Matthias Schröder and Cardinal Augustine Bea (†), encouraged the publishers to undertake this project. Valuable consultants have been G. W. Anderson, Henri Cazelles, David N. Freedman, Shemarjahu Talmon, and Gerhard Wallis. J. Bergman, O. Loretz, and W. von Soden have served as technical advisers for egyptology, ugaritology, and the ancient Near East, respectively. We owe a special debt of gratitude to the authors of the articles for their cooperation in producing the Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament. The publishers and editors hope it will prove to be a useful tool not only for exegetical research but also for pastoral work.

G. Johannes Botterweck / Helmer Ringgren


 EDITORS’ PREFACE TO VOLUME VII

The original plan for the Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament provided for the completion of this multivolume work over the span of approximately a decade. Almost immediately such a swift realization proved to be utopian. The abundant influx of new insights in exegesis (e.g., pressing discussions concerning the Pentateuch, the Deuteronomistic history, the prophetic books, etc.), lexicography and semantics, comparative linguistics, ancient Near Eastern studies, and certainly not least archaeology with the discovery of new cultures (e.g., Tell Mardikh-Ebla) again and again forced to a standstill the otherwise unimpeded flow of work on the Dictionary. Many entries that had already been completed had to be reedited. Rightly so, several contributors and subscribers expressed their displeasure.

In the midst of this persistent grappling our venture encountered a serious blow. On April 15, 1981, Professor Gerhard Johannes Botterweck died. His profound knowledge of the Old Testament and its milieu, his vast experience in all practical matters associated with book production, his organizational skills, and above all his theological foresightedness had come to be of inestimable value to our undertaking. All this will be missing in the future. All colleagues acknowledge with gratitude the value of his accomplishments. R.I.P.

Dr. Heinz-Josef Fabry, a student of Professor Botterweck and an editorial colleague since 1971, has become the new co-editor. This should guarantee a continuity in the editorial work in keeping with the established principles.

Deliberation over fundamental matters is therefore unnecessary. The principal goal of the project remains the same (see the Preface to Volume I), to analyze the Hebrew words semantically. The presentation of the fundamental concepts intended by the respective words and terms, the traditions in which they occur, and the different nuances of meaning they have in each tradition stand at the focus of this analytical work, so that in the end one might ultimately bring together the individual building blocks of an Old Testament theology.

Helmer Ringgren/Heinz-Josef Fabry


EDITORS’ PREFACE TO VOLUME VIII

The original plan for the Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament provided for the completion of this multivolume work over the span of approximately a decade. Almost immediately such a swift realization proved to be utopian. The abundant influx of new insights in exegesis (e.g., pressing discussions concerning the Pentateuch, the Deuteronomistic history, the prophetic books, etc.), lexicography and semantics, comparative linguistics, ancient Near Eastern studies, and certainly not least archaeology with the discovery of new cultures (e.g., Tell Mardikh-Ebla) again and again forced to a standstill the otherwise unimpeded flow of work on the Dictionary. Many entries that had already been completed had to be reedited. Rightly so, several contributors and subscribers expressed their displeasure.

In the midst of this persistent grappling our venture encountered a serious blow. On April 15, 1981, Professor Gerhard Johannes Botterweck died. His profound knowledge of the Old Testament and its milieu, his vast experience in all practical matters associated with book production, his organizational skills, and above all his theological foresightedness had come to be of inestimable value to our undertaking. All this will be missing in the future. All colleagues acknowledge with gratitude the value of his accomplishments. R.I.P.

Dr. Heinz-Josef Fabry, a student of Professor Botterweck and an editorial colleague since 1971, has become the new co-editor. This should guarantee a continuity in the editorial work in keeping with the established principles.

Deliberation over fundamental matters is therefore unnecessary. The principal goal of the project remains the same (see the Preface to Volume I), to analyze the Hebrew words semantically. The presentation of the fundamental concepts intended by the respective words and terms, the traditions in which they occur, and the different nuances of meaning they have in each tradition stand at the focus of this analytical work, so that in the end one might ultimately bring together the individual building blocks of an Old Testament theology.

Helmer Ringgren/Heinz-Josef Fabry


Editors’ Preface to Volume XV

“A Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament is a bold venture any time it is undertaken.” As the editors wrote this in the mid-1970s, they had in mind not so much the mechanical aspects of the project, but rather the ever daunting field of theological scholarship. The substantial developments that they envisioned at that time turned out to be even more rapid and more controversial than one could have expected. What had been projected as a task to be completed in a maximum of 10 years turned into an epic venture spanning more than a quarter century. Almost from the outset the original conception of the Dictionary required continuous modification, attested in an ever expanding number of terms and concepts addressed, with a grand total of approximately 1150 key words now included. New insights regarding grammar and linguistics constantly had to be considered, as well as advances in the study of epigraphy and unanticipated proliferation in publication of the Qumran texts. The rise of a full spectrum of new methodologies further necessitated setting new standards. The greatest challenge, however, remained the ongoing dialogue encompassing divergent theories and approaches to the biblical texts. Collaboration between the editors and authors sought to address prudently this situation of seemingly constant change so as not to attach hastily to new currents of thought but rather to present responsible opinions. In the process consensus also had to be reached on fundamental matters of lexicography so as not to become bogged down in the perplexities of interpretation. A Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament can provide a great deal, but not everything.

Volumes I–XV of The Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, covering the Hebrew terms, are now completed. Only one volume on Aramaic terms follows (Volume XVI), under the editorship of Professor Dr. Ingo Kottsieper of Göttingen (see ZAH 8 [1995] 80–81). The series will conclude with Volume XVII, which will enhance access to the Dictionary by means of a general index and which will also provide supplementary bibliography updating entries throughout the set.

To all of our contributors, a hearty word of thanks for your many years of service. Of foremost importance are the authors of the individual articles, who have with great competence and preparation addressed their topics and offered insights reflecting scholarship of the highest order. A number of these contributors have also provided skillful translations, and many articles were extensively rewritten. The editorial teams in both Bonn and Uppsala have made substantial contributions. For Bonn, sincere thanks to H. Lamberty-Zielinski, H. Baranske, G. Barteldrees, A. Doecker, E. Hamacher, M. Rapp-Pokorny, M. Riehmen, and N. van Meeteren, as well as E. Ballhorn, U. Dahmen, C. Röttgen-Burtscheidt, J. Schnocks, and M. Seufert. For Uppsala, special appreciation to G. André. Quite applicable for the members of these teams has occasionally  been the lament of the Preacher in Eccl. 12:12BHS: “Of making many books there is no end, and much study is a weariness of the flesh.”

Particular gratitude is expressed to Headmaster F. Stöhr, emeritus, of Heinsberg, who with great precision verified the biblical citations and reviewed critically the LXX sections of individual articles. In addition, many of the corrections incorporated into the English edition stem from his work.

Finally, we reiterate our appreciation to technical advisors Jan Bergman (Egyptology), Oswald Loretz (Ugaritic), and Wolfram Freiherr von Soden (Akkadian).

In the course of our work we have encountered the death of Founding Editor Gerhard Johannes Botterweck as well as of several authors: Sverre Aalen, Peter R. Ackroyd, Gösta W. Ahlström, Luis Alonso-Schökel, Christoph Barth, Jan Bergman, Herrmann Eising, Otto Eissfeldt, Alfred Haldar, Vinzen Hamp, Gerhard F. Hasel, Alfred Jepsen, Arvid S. Kapelrud, Dieter Kellermann, Walter Kornfeld, Hans Kosmala, Tryggve Kronholm, Daniel Levy, Paul Maiberger, Martin J. Mulder, Horst-Dietrich Preuss, Joseph Reindl, Josef Scharbert, Otto Schilling, Wolfram von Soden, Siegfried Wagner, and Hans-Jürgen Zobel. To all of them belong our gratitude and our respectful remembrances.

The well-known saying, “quem dii oderunt, lexicographum fecerunt [those whom the gods wish to destroy, they make into dictionary editors]” may at times have accurately characterized the disposition of the editors, but the countless experiences of fruitful collegial collaboration, out of which grew numerous friendships, overshadowed those aspects of the process. And it is particularly befitting for the editors, that our editor at W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Jürgen Schneider, has always been “in unserem Bund der Dritte (the third in our Federation).”

Heinz-Josef Fabry/Helmer Ringgren


Editor’s Preface to Volume XVI

This volume completes the Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament (TDOT) after almost a half century. This final volume situates the vocabulary of the Aramaic sections of Ezra and Daniel in the context of its linguistic and cultural history and, thereby, frees Biblical Aramaic from its role as an appendix to the Hebrew Bible. Instead, it appears as what it is: part of an overarching literary tradition that spread in the course of the first millennium B.C.E. from Syria to Mesopotamia, Palestine, Egypt, Arabia, Anatolia, and even to Central Asia and, in various local forms, survived in literature, administration, and daily communication on into late antiquity. Even more than Hebrew, Aramaic attests the incorporation of the Old Testament in its broad cultural framework.

Because of its ambitious objective, the Aramaic dictionary in TDOT has its own history. Klaus Beyer (1929–2014) was enlisted as the first editor in January 1986; he declined, however, for various reasons, including that the state of research at the time could be easily understood as quite unfavorable for such a project. Ingo Kottsieper, responsible for the first fascicle in 2001, announced the volume a mere decade later in the Zeitschrift für Althebraistik 8 (1995), 80f. Yet it proved difficult to find authors who both possessed the necessary philological mastery over all the several dialects, corpora, and academic specialties involved in the widespread Aramaic material through which one could lay open the various connotations and layers of meaning of Biblical Aramaic, and could combine this expertise to answer the exegetical and religio-historical questions that a theological dictionary must address.

After years at a standstill, the enterprise was entrusted to the undersigned. Inititially, the difficulties continued unabated. At the moment of transfer, only a handful of articles, or at least articles in publishable form, for the second fascicle were on hand. Despite every effort, additional acceptances came rarely and did not always lead to submitted manuscripts. Torn between the thankless task and the aversion to quitting, the editor finally brought himself to write all the outstanding articles himself and is, therefore, more present here than one would usually expect. In any case, a broad unity in approach and presentation could be attained in this manner and more recent research could be incorporated directly. Special value was placed on the consideration of advances in the classification of the individual phases of the Aramaic language with their varying interrelationships, both Semitic philology and linguistic analysis, and the many recently discovered sources: the other manuscripts from the Dead Sea, the Clermont-Ganneau ostraca, all the Samaria Papyri, many Neo-Assyrian commercial documents, and the documents from the Bactrian provincial archive.

The changes in editor and approach from the first fascicle led to a few alterations in the format, beginning with the article on בעי (bʿī). With no change regarding theological relevance, efforts were made for greater philological depth of field through the examination of synonyms, the various nuances of grammatical constructions, and the various registers, and for tighter restriction to the varieties of Aramaic most closely related to Biblical Aramaic in linguistic and cultural terms, but within this framework, a presentation as complete and balanced as possible.

Thus, semantic fields and actual diction of older Aramaic find their first description on a broad basis. At the same time, a few essential transformations in the discipline of Old Testament since the first volumes of TDOT have received attention, especially the greater concentration on the immediate Syro-Palestinian environment of the literary tradition of ancient Israel, its transformation under Achaemenid rule, and its early reception mirrored in the documents from Qumran. In addition, references to the Aramaic of the Hellenistic-Roman period build a bridge to the environment of the New Testament and early Christianity. The selection of material could also be synchronized with the in-progress Theologisches Wörterbuch zu den Qumrantexten ( TheWQ), whose editors have always willingly permitted insights into the current state of affairs.

The present English volume has introduced a few bibliographic additions but is otherwise a straightforward translation of the German original. The German edition of this volume was originally published in seven fascicles. A change in editorship and long time lapse between the first and the remaining fascicles (between the בנה and בעי entries) resulted in some inconsistencies in transcription style, linguistic preferences, and focus of the entries. These inconsistencies remain in the English volume, as it was impossible to remove them all during the translation.

Since no assistant, sabbatical, or other convenience facilitated the work on this book, expressions of gratitude can be omitted. One cannot keep silent, however, about the angelic patience of the publishing house, the authors, and the editor of TDOT, Heinz-Josef Fabry. He and Christian Stadel have also assisted energetically with the correction of the galley proofs and, thus, contributed to a good outcome. The mighty manes of Klaus Beyer patronized the completion through all the contrary circumstances of an ignorant higher education policy. In the end, it has returned to the hands that he once showed many a new skill.

It is easier for the undersigner to dedicate a book to the dead than to the living, for “the ever-silent, ever-pale never promise and never deny.” On this point there must be an exception: The work is cordially dedicated to Georg Müller and Christian Wirz after more than fifteen years of true and deep friendship!


Publisher's Note on Volume XVII

Preparing an index volume for a dictionary project such as this—almost four thousand pages in sixteen volumes that appeared over a forty-five-year span—is no small task. The Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament has entries on well over a thousand words, with references to many thousands of both Scriptural passages throughout the Old and New Testaments and extrabiblical sources ranging from Egyptian and Sumerian literature of the third millennium B.C.E. to Christian and Jewish writings of the early medieval period. Our purpose with this volume is to be as comprehensive as possible, indexing as much material as possible, from multiple angles.

How to use the Index Volume XVII

The Index Volume opens with an index of English words. In compiling this, we took the English words most associated with the Hebrew and Aramaic key word entries, as derived from TDOT itself. Next come the Hebrew and Aramaic word indexes. Here one can look up a Hebrew or Aramaic word and find every instance where it appears in the Dictionary. Underlined page ranges direct the reader to the primary entry for the word in question, but the other citations lead to passages where the word appears in the entries for other terms. The biblical indexes—Old Testament, Apocrypha, and New Testament—then enable the reader to look up any verse in Scripture and see where it is cited in the Dictionary. Between the English index, the Hebrew and Aramaic indexes, and the biblical indexes, the reader can use TDOT in several ways, beginning from a translated word, the original-language word, or a biblical verse, and find everything there is to find among the sixteen volumes.

After these indexes one will find a number of smaller indexes covering extrabiblical sources. These indexes include countless primary sources from the world of the Bible. One can look up a line from the Gilgamesh Epic, or a Dead Sea Scroll, or a work of Josephus, or any number of other ancient works to see whether they are cited in the Dictionary. Beyond this, the index covers a host of reference material, including anthologies of ancient sources and dictionaries of cognate languages. Thus, for example, one can take a passage from Ancient Near Eastern Texts Relating to the Old Testament or an Akkadian word from the Chicago Assyrian Dictionary and look it up in TDOT. These are grouped primarily according to language and era (see the final paragraph of the Publisher’s Note for more specifics) and they cover a vast amount of material.


NOTE TO THE REVISED ENGLISH EDITION

The present edition incorporates a number of corrections and revisions suggested by the contributors, by reviewers, by Geoffrey W. Bromiley, and by David Green, to each of whom the publishers wish to express sincere gratitude.

Where the chapter or verse numbering is different in the Hebrew (or Septuagint) text and in the English versions, the Hebrew (or Greek) numbering has been noted first, and then the English in parentheses or brackets.

theWORD Bible Software 
version information

theWord Features:

  • Verse popups
  • Fully searchable text
  • Easy navigation of topics via topics tree display.
  • Hebrew Lemmas: אָב
  • Aramaic Lemmas: שׂגי
  • Strong's Numbers: H1
  • Special Text Colors
    • Normal: Text
    • Hyperlink: lit | Luke 20:21
    • Page Number: [v1 pg21>
    • Latin: septuaginta
    • Transliteration: môrāʾ
    • Aramaic: שׂגי
    • Hebrew: אָב
    • Greek: σαμβύκη

Use with Wisdom Notes

Indexes: Search for v# pg# for finding volume and page number in book search of theWord. Example: searching for v5 pg30 will get you to that volume and page which will look like [v5 pg30>.

Lemma sync note: This module will work with lemmas that are available in some resources. 

Popup/Hyperlink note: Some hyperlinks will not show a popup unless the ctrl key is held down. This is because some popups would be quite large.

Superscript note: The superscripts LXX, VUL, OTP or BHS next to a reference indicate that this has that versions versification. However, in theWORD we are using standard (KJV) versification so you will need to adjust for the different versification.




     
BDAG - A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature, 3rd edition  (BDAG)
40.3 MB 22-Feb-2022
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Danker, Frederick William; Bauer, Walter
Module version: 1.3
Description:

Described as an "invaluable reference work" (Classical Philology) and "a tool indispensable for the study of early Christian literature" (Religious Studies Review) in its previous edition, this new updated American edition of Walter Bauer's Wörterbuch zu den Schriften des Neuen Testaments builds on its predecessor's staggering deposit of extraordinary erudition relating to Greek literature from all periods. Including entries for many more words, the new edition also lists more than 25,000 additional references to classical, intertestamental, Early Christian, and modern literature.

Read more and see samples at the product page.
     
Pocket Dictionary for the Study of New Testament Greek  (PD NT Greek)
3.4 MB 11-Feb-2022
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): DeMoss, Matthew. S
Module version: 1.0
Description:

If you are beginning your study of New Testament Greek or Greek exegesis, this book is for you!

From ablative to zeugma, it defines the tangled terms that infest Greek textbooks, grammars and lexicons.

Here is the book to deliver you from late-night ponderings of the predicate and frantic fumings over the fricative. It is the indispensable lexicon to that third language that is neither Greek nor recognizable English: the technical vocabulary of grammarians, lexicographers, linguists and Greek instructors. What’s more, this pocket dictionary gives you the inside edge on the terminology of exegesis, textual criticism and biblical criticism.

Careful definitions, helpful examples and copious cross-references make this economically priced, brief dictionary easy to use. And its convenient size will make it a constant companion in your study of the Greek New Testament.

  • theWord Features
  • Verse popups
  • Fully searchable text
  • FootNote(s)
  • Easy navigation of topics via topics tree display.
  • Special Text Colors
    • Normal: Text
    • Hyperlink: Link
    • Page Number: [pg1>
    • Greek: λογος
    • Hebrew: א
     
Vocabulary of the Greek Testament: Student Edition  (VGNTS)
62.2 MB 09-Jul-2021
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): J. H. Moulton and G. Milligan. + Alan Loder
Module version: 1.5
Description:

Vocabulary of the Greek Testament:
Student Edition (VGNTS)

by

Allan T. Loder

‘Vocabulary of the Greek Testament: Student Edition’ is an update/revision of Moulton’s and Milligan’s ‘VGNT’ published 1924-1930.  It is based on the 1929 print edition — which is now in the public domain — along with some supplemental material from the 1930 edition. However, it is not merely an electronic reproduction of Moulton’s and Milligan’s book. While every attempt has been made to remain true to the original content of VGNT, the VGNTS is an major update/revision designed to make Moulton’s and Milligan’s valuable resource more accessible to a wider English-speaking audience — especially those whose knowledge of the Biblical languages is very basic, “rusty,” or non-existent.

A reading of the print version of VGNT suggests that the original authors, Moulton and Milligan, presupposed that their intended audience would have a high level of understanding of the Greek language. Hopefully, the enhancements in the VGNTS version will help fill the gap for those whose knowledge is somewhat less than they anticipated.

Moultons and Milligans purpose for publishing the ‘The Vocabulary of the Greek Testament’ was to demonstrate that the language of the Greek New Testament was the common (Κοινή, Koinē) language used by people on the street.  The source documents used are mostly papyri and inscriptions that were discovered in the 1800s and early 1900s. These include such items as personal letters, court transcripts, marriage contracts, bills of sale, petitions, etc. These give us a facinating look into the daily lives of those who lived around the time when the New Testament was written. The purpose of the ‘Vocabulary of the Greek Testament: Student Edition’ remains the same as that of Moulton and Milligan, except now with the enhancements it is more accessible to a much wider audience.

The following enhancements have been made:

a.  Each lexical entry is keyed to Strongs numbers. This creates a hyperlink between this dictionary module and any Bible module with Greek text in theWord that is keyed to Strong’s.  In cases where there is no corresponding Strong’s number, the Greek word is listed in the index. In cases where the lexical form is different in VGNT than in Strong’s, the Strong’s form appears after the VGNT form inside brackets with a tilde at the beginning.  For example,  αἱμορροέω (~ αἱμορῥέω).

b.  For each lexical entry the Greek word is given, followed by a transliteration, the [page number] where the word occurs in the print edition, an asterisk(*) to indicate the entry has been updated/revised, and a gloss.  For example, ἀγάπη [page 2]* [agapē, love].

c.  All internal cross-references to VGNT other entries have been hyperlinked. For example, in the body of the text of G154 ατω you will see s.v. ρωτω [erōtaō“to ask”]. This word is hyperlinked to G2065 ρωτωThere are over 500 such cross-references provided, thus making this module more useful and user-friendly.

d.  Inline English translations are provided for all Greek text, as well as for most Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac, Latin, French and German text.  A transliteration of some text is also provided, where deemed helpful.

e. In all translations of Greek text, the corresponding word for the lexical entry is underlined in both the Greek sentence and English translation. The intent to help the English reader understand how that word functions in the sentence. 

f. All papyri and inscriptions cited by Moulton and Milligan were carefully checked against available print and/or electronic sources. In some cases, later editions (i.e., transcriptions) of certain papyri have become available that have been emended by the editors differently than what is shown in VGNT. These are noted in the footnotes, along with the later transcriptions.

g. Over 460 new lexical entries are added as a result of papyri and inscriptions discovered in the decades since Moulton and Milligan.

h. New source materials are added to existing lexical entries, where available and deemed helpful.

i.  Pertinent information, such as units of measure, currency, names of Egyptian months, official titles, etc., is provided and hyperlinked. 

j.  In cases where references to the LXX (Septuagint) are given, the text of the LXX and an English translation is provided in the footnote. In addition, the parallel Hebrew Masoretic Text (MT) reference is hyperlinked to the biblical text. Both references are given. For example, LXX Psa. 90:1 [= MT Psa. 91:1].

l.  The VGNTS includes exerts from books cited in the print edition of VGNT which is now either out of print, no longer available, or very hard to find. Occasionally, Moulton and Milligan redirects the reader elsewhere, without providing any additional information themselves on a particular word.  For example, for the entry Κανά (Kana, “Cana”) they have only See F. C. Burkitt Syriac Forms, pp. 18f., 22.” In the VGNTS the information from those source cited is incorporated into the lexical entry where deemed helpful (See entry G2580).

m. In cases where the discussion on the particular form of a word centers around NT text-critical issues, relevant information is provided in the footnotes.

n.  Unfortunately, one of the greatest challenges for the student of papyrology and epigraphy is that sources are frequently listed under more that one catalogue identifier. For example Syll 364 is no. 364 of the second edition of Dittenbergers Sylloge Inscriptionum Graecarum. But it is also listed as Syll.3 797, and again as IMT SuedlTroas 573. This can be confusing and frustrating when attempting to look up a given source.  This enhanced version of VGNT addresses this challenge by providing several additional catalogue identifiers inside square brackets.  For example, Syll 364 [= Syll.3 797 = IMT SuedlTroas 573].

 

     
New American Standard Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek Dictionary  (NASBHGD2020)
10.7 MB 13-Mar-2021
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): The Lockman Foundation
Module version: 1.0
Description: The NASBHGD 2020 Dictionary is part of a bundle with the NASB 2020, and cannot be purchased separately.

The NASB 2020 is an update of the NASB 1995 that further improves accuracy where possible, modernizes language, and improves readability. These refinements maintain faithful accuracy to the original texts and provide a clear understanding of God’s Word to those who prefer more modern English standards. The long-established translation standard for the NASB remains the same as it always has been, that is to accurately translate the inspired Word of God from the Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek texts into modern English that is clearly understandable today.

theWord Features

NASB 2020 Bible

  • Searchable text (via regular text and Strong’s Numbers)
  • Strong’s Numbers
  • Words of Jesus in Red
  • Headings
  • Paragraphs
  • Cross references
  • Footnotes
  • Strong’s Numbers linked to NASBHGD 2020 Dictionary

NASBHGD 2020 Dictionary

  • Fully searchable text
  • Easy navigation via topics tree display.
  • Strong’s Numbers
  • Greek Lemmas
  • Hebrew Lemmas
  • Special Text Colors
  • Normal: Text
  • Usage: NASB 2020 Usage
  • Hyperlink: G10
  • Transliteration: Melek
  • Hebrew: מֶלֶךְ
  • Greek: κοδράντης
     
Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament  (TWOT)
6.7 MB 24-Nov-2019
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Harris, Laird R.; Archer, Gleason L.;Waltke, Bruce K.
Module version: 1.1
Description:

This extensive, scholarly work includes discussions of every Hebrew word of theological significance in the Old Testament, plus brief definitions of all other words found in Brown, Driver and Briggs Hebrew Lexicon. Keyed to Strong's Concordance, the Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (TWOT) has been a longtime favorite of serious students of the Bible -pastors and laypeople alike. The busy pastor or earnest Christian worker who has neither the time nor the background for detailed technical study yet desires to understand important terms will enjoy this practical resource.

Read more at the product page.
     
Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible  (EDB)
10.3 MB 02-Oct-2010
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Eerdmans Publishing Co.
Module version: 1.0
Description: The Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible gathers nearly 5,000 alphabetically ordered articles that thoroughly yet clearly explain all the books, persons, places, and significant terms found in the Bible. The Dictionary also explores the background of each biblical book and related writings and discusses cultural, natural, geographical, and literary phenomena—matters that Bible students at all levels may encounter in reading or discussion. Click to read more at the product page
     
Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Abridged in One Volume  (TDNTa)
3.8 MB 02-Oct-2010
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): Kittel, Gerhard; Friedrich, Gerhard
Module version: 1.0
Description: The Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Abridged in one volume (TDNTa), also known as "Little Kittel", is considered by many to be the best New Testament dictionary ever compiled. One of the most widely respected theological dictionaries put into one-volume, abridged form. Focusing on the theological meaning of each word, the abridgment contains English keywords for each entry and tables of English and Greek keywords.

Read more at the product page

     
New American Standard Exchaustive Concordance  (NASEC)
15.4 MB 11-Apr-2010
This is a paid module and requires an unlock key to be used.

Author(s): The Lockman Foundation
Module version: 1.1
Description: New American Standard Updated Edition Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible with Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek Dictionaries

Keyed to Strong's numbers, it can be used to replace the standard Mickelson/Strong's dictionary.

NOTICE: This is part of the New American Standard Bible package and cannot be installed independently.

     
Abbott-Smith's Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament  (AMGL)
1.5 MB 29-Jun-2022
Author(s): Abbott-Smith, G.
Module version: 1.8
Description:

Abbot-Smith’s A Manual Lexicon of the New Testament was written to offer an update to older lexicons—those written before the discovery of manuscripts demonstrating that the New Testament was written in koine Greek, rather than a Hebrew variant of classical Greek. It was also written to be a quick reference guide for students of the New Testament to use while reading their Greek text. It adopts the textual standard of Moulton and Geden’s Concordance to the Greek New Testament by following the Westcott & Hort Greek text.

Features:

  • Keyed to Strong’s
  • Synonyms Keyed to Strong’s
  • where there is only a “see” definition that Strong’s number is given
  • Color coding of links for easy reference
  • Hyperlinks for all abbreviations
  • *** Now with Link topics for version 1.5 ***

Version1.8 adds back Hebrew Lemma after Hebrew Strong's numbers

This module is a conversion of the one from biblesupport.com with some minor additions.

     
Greek Analytical Lexicon  (GrkAnLex)
14.3 MB 17-Mar-2022
Author(s): Peponakis, Panagiotis; Robinson, Maurice
Module version: 1.3
Description:

Greek Analytical Lexicon

New Testament Data:

  • Authors: Maurice Robinson
  • Liason: Steve Sweigart
  • Notes: Steve Sweigart made the database from the data provided by Maurice Robinson.

LXX Data: This non-commercial theWord project has been registered with [email protected].

  • Authors: Panagiotis Peponakis
  • Liason: Steve Sweigart
  • Notes: Panagiotis Peponakis did all the corrections to the data. Steve Sweigart made the database.
  • Additional notes: The LXX data was extracted from the CCAT files by filtering out all the unique words and their morphologies. Panagiotis Peponakis has made many corrections to this data.
Note: For the [MLSJ] and [LSJ] Hyperlinks to work you need to install those two resouces from the Add Titles.
From the search-bar of Download Titles window, simply search for LSJ and both resources should show in the list for you to download.
     
Greek Analytical Lexicon (Research Edition)  (GrkAnLexRe)
26.5 MB 17-Mar-2022
Author(s): Peponakis, Panagiotis; Robinson, Maurice
Module version: 1.0
Description:

Greek Analytical Lexicon Research

New Testament Data:

  • Authors: Maurice Robinson
  • Liason: Steve Sweigart
  • Notes: Steve Sweigart made the database from the data provided by Maurice Robinson.

LXX Data: This non-commercial theWord project has been registered with [email protected].

  • Authors: Panagiotis Peponakis
  • Liason: Steve Sweigart
  • Notes: Panagiotis Peponakis did all the corrections to the data. Steve Sweigart made the database.
  • Additional notes: The LXX data was extracted from the CCAT files by filtering out all the unique words and their morphologies. Panagiotis Peponakis has made many corrections to this data.

Extended Greek Data:

Note: For the [MLSJ] and [LSJ] Hyperlinks to work you need to install those two resouces from the Add Titles.
From the search-bar of Download Titles window, simply search for LSJ and both resources should show in the list for you to download.
     
Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Classical Greek  (LSJ)
18.9 MB 22-Feb-2022
Author(s): Liddell, Henry George; Scott Robert; Jones, Henry Stuart
Module version: 1.5
Description: A Greek-English Lexicon - Unabridged (Liddell, Scott, Jones). Keyed to Greek words, with abbreviation linked and explained for easy reading.

Version 1.4 13/02/2022 includes some Strong's numbers in the subjects list as Link Topics.

     
Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon of Classical Greek, An Intermediate Greek English Lexicon (1882) (Abridged)  (MLSJ)
3.3 MB 22-Feb-2022
Author(s): Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert
Module version: 1.3
Description:

A Greek-English Lexicon - Abridged (Liddell, Scott, Jones), best known as Middle Liddell/Scott - MLSJ. Keyed to Greek words, with abbreviations linked and explained for easy reading. Each definition is nicely formatted and indented for easier reference and less clutter.


This Abridgment of the Oxford Greek Lexicon has been undertaken in compliance with wishes expressed by several experienced School Masters. It is an entirely new work, and it is hoped that it will meet their requirements.

It differs from the old Abridgement, in that

  • 1st. It is made from the last Edition (1883) of the large Lexicon.
  • 2ndly. The matter contained in it is greatly increased. This increase has been caused by giving fuller explanations of the words, by inserting the irregular forms of Moods and Tenses more fully, by citing the leading Authorities for the different usages, and adding characteristic phrases.

With regard to the citation of Authors' names, it has been endeavoured to give the earliest authority for each usage. When the word or meaning continued in general use, an 'etc.' is added to the first authority or authorities. When the original usage seems to be continued only exceptionally, the names of the exceptional have been added.

Generaly speaking, words used only by late writers and scientific terms have been omitted. But from Homer downwards, to the close of Classical Attic Greek, care has been taken to insert all words. Besides these, will be found words used by Aristotle in his moral and political treatises, by Polybius and Strabo in the books generally read by students, by Plutarch in his Lives, by Lucian, by the Poets of the Anthology, and by the writes of the New Testament.

Version 1.2 13/02/2022 some Strong's numbers added as Link Topics

     
Dodson Greek-English Lexicon  (Dodson)
0.8 MB 13-Feb-2022
Author(s): Dodson, John Jeffrey
Module version: 1.1
Description: Dodson Greek-English Lexicon
Copyright © 2010 by John Jeffrey Dodson

This dictionary is keyed to Strong's numbers (New Testament only). It provides for each entry the original word, morphology and a short, single line, quick definition. This Greek-to-English lexicon was compiled by the copyright holder using the following public-domain sources:

[1] Abbott-Smith, G., A Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1922.
[2] Berry, George R., A New Greek-English Lexicon to the New Testament, New York: Hinds & Noble, 1897.
[3] Souter, Alexander, A Pocket Lexicon to the Greek New Testament, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1917.
[4] Strong, J., Strong’s Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, 1890.

The lexicon is hereby released by the copyright holder into the public domain. As such, it may be used for personal, academic,
non-commercial, and/or commercial purposes.

Version 1.1 Adds Lemmas as Link Topics

     
Greek to Hebrew and Hebrew to Greek, Dictionary of Septuagint Words  (LXXGrkHeb)
0.9 MB 13-Feb-2022
Author(s): Leblanc, Pierre
Module version: 1.1
Description: Greek to Hebrew Dictionary of Septuagint Words (revised with original language characters)
This lexicon contains Greek words found in the Septuagint and also found in the NT. These are coded to Strong's. The lexicon also contains the equivalent Hebrew words which the Septuagint has translated. The Hebrew words are also coded to Strong's. The benefit is that one can find the in depth meaning of all these OT Hebrew words thus providing a link between the NT Greek and OT Hebrew. (Due acknowledgment is given to Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament by Abbot-Smith and Hatch and Redpath Concordance to the Septuagint).

Hebrew to Greek Dictionary of Septuagint Words (revised with original language characters)
This lexicon contains Hebrew words found in the OT which are coded to Strong's and also contains equivalent Greek words which have translated these Hebrew words in the Septuagint. These Greek words are also found in the NT and are coded to Strong's. The benefit is that by double clicking on the Strong's numbers while having a Greek lexicon as a default, one can find the in depth meaning of all these Septuagint Greek words thus providing a link between the OT Hebrew and NT Greek. (Due acknowledgment is given to Manual Greek Lexicon of the New Testament by Abbot-Smith and Hatch and Redpath Concordance to the Septuagint)

By Pierre Leblanc

Note :- 'Only the words common to both the OT (Septuagint) and NT are included and not the whole LXX (Septuagint).

Version 1.1 Adds Lemmas as Link Topics

     
King James Concordance  (KJC)
3.6 MB 13-Feb-2022
Module version: 1.2
Description: This concordance is compiled based upon Strong's numbers. It lists all occurrences of the original language words and their English translations.

Version 1.2 Adds Lemmas as Link Topics

     
Thayer's Greek-English Lexicon  (Thayer)
2.8 MB 31-Dec-2021
Author(s): Thayer, J. Henry
Module version: 1.5
Description:

A

Greek-English Lexicon

of

the New Testament

being Grimm’s Wilke’s Clavis Novi Testamenti Translated Revised and Enlarged by Joseph Henry Thayer, D.D.

  • Topics listed by Greek lemma
  • Enhanced with Strong's numbers, as Link Topics
  • Topic lookup by Strong's or Lemma
  • Bibles containing lemma data can use "word click" in Bible view to synchronise lemma with Lexicon
  • Strong's links in Bible will popup info if set as a Strong's dictionary for that Bible

Version 1.5 Minor typo in G5021 God bad = God had

     
Robinson's Morphological Analysis Codes  (RMAC-en)
0.2 MB 14-Jul-2020
Author(s): Robinson
Module version: 1.3
Description: This is a list of abbreviations for the grammar morphology codes that are used in various Bible texts. Several New Testament texts are tagged with an abbreviation code after each word that explains its grammar, and this dictionary contains the analytical explanation of each abbreviation.

This is the offical 'theWord' morphology codes dictionary.
     
Ancient Hebrew Lexicon of the Bible  (AHLB)
1.7 MB 30-May-2020
Author(s): Benner, Jeff A
Module version: 1.5
Description: Hebrew Letters, Words and Roots Defined Within Their Ancient Cultural Context
     
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia  (ISBE)
12.5 MB 13-Nov-2015
Author(s): Orr, James; Nuelsen, John; Mullins, Edgar; Evans, Morris; Kyle, Melvin Grove
Module version: 1.3
Description: This encyclopedia was published by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. Hailed for its authoritative explanations of every significant word, person, and place in the Bible and Apocrypha, it is a standard by which other Biblical encyclopedias are measured. In contains articles by nearly 200 scholars about archaeological discoveries, the language and literature of Bible lands, customs, family life, occupations, and the historical and religious environments of Bible people.
     
Bridgeway Bible Dictionary  (BBD)
Courtesy of Bridgeway Publications
4.3 MB 28-Oct-2015
Author(s): Fleming, Don
Module version: 1.2
Description: An accurate, readable and helpful A to Z of almost 1000 entries that cover all the major areas of biblical knowledge:
- Theological issues and Christian doctrines
- Life and ministry of Jesus Christ
- Salvation and Christian life
- Church and mission
- Christian ethics
- Cultures, customs and religions
- Books of the Bible
- Historical studies of nations and peoples
- Environmental features of Bible lands
- Characters of the Bible
- Maps, charts, line drawings and tables
     
Mickelson's Enhanced Strong's Greek and Hebrew Dictionaries  (Mickelson)
Courtesy of Jonathan K. Mickelson at PlowShare Mission
8.7 MB 03-Aug-2015
Author(s): Mickelson, Jonathan Kristen
Module version: 1.0
Description: This UPDATED and ENHANCED EDITION marks the first known update to the Strong's Dictionaries in one hundred fifteen years. It contains the Greek and Hebrew Unicode for each entry. Each entry is normalized into various fields for extended computer usage. The dictionaries contain parts of speech as well as proper noun identification of people, locations, groups (nationalities and followers), and things.

This is the primary Strong's dictionary used by 'theWord'.
     
Noah Webster's 1828 Dictionary of American English  (Webster)
6 MB 28-Dec-2014
Author(s): Webster, Noah
Module version: 1.3
Description: Webster considered "education useless without the Bible". Noah Webster believed that the Bible and Christianity played important roles in the lives of a free people and its government. "In my view, the Christian religion is the most important and one of the first things in which all children, under a free government, ought to be instructed.... No truth is more evident to my mind than that the Christian religion must be the basis of any government intended to secure the rights and privileges of a free people...."
     
Shoroshim: Thesaurus of Hebrew Roots  (Shoroshim)
1.5 MB 05-Mar-2013
Author(s): Brauner, Reuven
Module version: 1.1
Description:

BIGGEST HEBREW VERB BOOK

Shoroshim by Reuven Brauner may be the most comprehensive list of Hebrew Verb roots ever published with close to 3300 entries. The verb roots are presented with definitions, synonyms and derivative meanings in thesaurus form, laid out in a clear, delightful and aesthetic manner.

CLEAR

Unlike ordinary dictionaries which are cluttered with permutations and combinations of grammatical forms for the same root, Shoroshim efficiently cuts right to the root.

Shoroshim provides easy guidelines to assist in the often complex and frustrating effort to determine a verb root.

DEEP

Shoroshim covers all periods in the development of the Hebrew language, from the Biblical period through modern Hebrew. Shoroshim includes a large number of obscure and obsolete roots, particularly helpful to the scholar and academic.

FUN AND EASY

Shoroshim is fun and easy to use, an indispensable quick reference source for all students and translators of Hebrew.

EXCLUSIVE AND FREE

Shoroshim is a seminal unique work, available only from Talmudic Books at Halakhah.com. Please visit to peruse and download the work.

     
Fausset's Bible Dictionary  (Fausset)
2.4 MB 04-Oct-2012
Author(s): Fausset, Andrew Robert
Module version: 1.3
Description: The Fausset's Bible Dictionary by A.R. Fausset, the co-author of the classic Jamieson, Fausset and Brown Commentary. This Bible Dictionary remains an excellent tool for teachers and students alike. It is one of the best single-volume Bible dictionaries ever written for Bible study. Fausset writes in an easy to understand format for any serious student of the Bible or scholar. Fausset's Bible Dictionary is an excellent tool for Bible study whether it be in-depth or basic.
     
Illustrated Bible Dictionary  (Easton)
1.2 MB 23-Sep-2012
Author(s): Easton, Matthew George
Module version: 1.1
Description: The fruit of many years of loving labor, Scottish Presbyterian minister Matthew George Easton's Illustrated Bible Dictionary has become a classic reference for those studying the Bible. Originally published in 1897, three years after Easton's death, it contains almost 4,000 entries and dozens of illustrations and maps.
Readers will find definitions of terms ranging from Alpha to Zuzims. In between they'll find entries both obscure and common, such as Emims (a warlike tribe of giants), Hagar (Sarah's handmaid), immortality, meekness, Pentecost (the feast of harvest), seventy weeks (a prophetic period of time before the coming of the Messiah), sling (what David used to slay the giant), and Zorah (Samson't birthplace).

Notice: This electronic copy for 'theWord' does not currently include the maps and illustrations.
     
American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - A Dictionary of Holy Bible  (AmTrac)
9.8 MB 10-Nov-2011
Author(s): Rand, William W.; Robinson, Edward
Module version: 1.1
Description: American Tract Society Bible Dictionary - Containing 2286 entries cross-referenced and cross-linked along with the images found in the original printed version.
     
Morrish Bible dictionary, A New and Concise Bible Dictionary  (Morrish)
14.7 MB 23-Mar-2010
Author(s): Morrish, George
Module version: 1.1
Description: Originally published with the title 'A New and Concise Bible Dictionary by George Morrish (London)', the Morrish Bible Dictionary is more than a dictionary of Bible words.
Features of the Morrish Bible Dictionary include:
- Definitions and explanations of almost 5,000 Bible terms, words, doctrines, places, and people.
- A list of New Testament Synonyms and how they are used by the writers of the New Testament.
- Introductions and overviews of each book of the Bible.
- Thousands of Scripture references.
- Many of the images found in the original version are also included
     
Smith's Bible Dictionary  (Smith)
1.2 MB 16-Jul-2009
Author(s): Smith, William
Module version: 1.1
Description: A classic reference, this comprehensive Bible dictionary gives you thousands of easy-to-understand definitions, verse references, and provides a wealth of basic background information that you'll find indispensable as you read the Bible.

Over 4,500 subjects and proper names are defined and analyzed with corresponding Scripture references. "Smith's Bible Dictionary" has been used by students of the Bible since it's introduction in the 1860's. A trustworthy classic that is more than just a dictionary defining thousands of biblical words.
     
Hitchcock's Bible Names  (HBN)
0.2 MB 27-Jun-2009
Author(s): Hitchcock, Roswell Dwight
Module version: 1.0
Description: Published in the late 1800's as part of the "New and Complete Analysis of the Holy Bible", Roswell Hitchcock's purpose was to define over 2,700 names of characters and places found in the Bible.

This dictionary is from "Hitchcock's New and Complete Analysis of the Holy Bible," written by Roswell D. Hitchcock in 1869. Published in the late 1800's as part of the "New and Complete Analysis of the Holy Bible", Roswell Hitchcock's purpose was to define over 2,700 names of characters and places found in the Bible.
     
Nave's Topical Bible  (Nave)
0.9 MB 27-Jun-2009
Author(s): Nave, Orville James
Module version: 1.0
Description: Nave's Topics were originally produced by Orville J. Nave, A.M., D.D., LL.D. while serving as a Chaplin in the United States Army. He referred to this work as "the result of fourteen years of delightful and untiring study of the Word of God." Nave's topics were originally published in the early 1900's, and consists of 20,000+ topics and subtopics, and 100,000 references to the Scriptures.

The topic headings are broad, covering many religious concepts, geographical regions, and names of Biblical figures. While theological concepts such as salvation and worship are included, a wide range of topics, such as Biblical references to ropes, are also included. This reflects the author's intention, as stated in the book's preface, to "...note and classify everything found in the Scriptures".
     
Thompson Chain-Reference  (TCR)
0.4 MB 27-Jun-2009
Author(s): Thompson, Frank C.
Module version: 1.0
Description: Frank Thompson's 1934 "The New Chain-Reference Bible". Became public domain material in 1962. Spellings Anglicized. Errors in cross-references corrected. Material keyed and proofed by Paul Houghton. This material contains information that is a proper subset of the material distributed by B.B. Kirkbride under the trademark of "Thompson Chain-References".
     
Torrey's New Topical Textbook  (TTT)
0.5 MB 27-Jun-2009
Author(s): Torrey, Reuben Archer
Module version: 1.0
Description: Torrey's Topical Textbook is a reference book or concordance for topics found in the Holy Bible. It contains subject index guides to topics found throughout the scriptures. The work contains 628 entries and over 20,000 scripture references.
     

 Chinese (1)

信望愛聖經原文字典 Faith, Hope and Love Bible text dictionary linked to Strong's numbers  (Strong-zh)
2.5 MB 29-Aug-2021
Module version: 1.1
Description: 信望愛聖經原文字典以 BDB (abridged) 與 Thayer 字典為翻譯藍本,並參考其他希伯來文與希臘文字典後作過修正補充刪減。資料來源:http://bible.fhl.net/public/    (2014.11.22​)​
     

 German (1)

Namen des Ewigen  (NdE)
1.4 MB 19-Oct-2010
Author(s): Meister, Abraham
Module version: 1.1
Description: In jahrzehntelanger Arbeit hat der Autor dieses meisterhafte Nachschlagewerk geschaffen. Sämtliche Namen Gottes, Jesu und des Heiligen Geistes sind alphabetisch geordnet und erklärt.
     

 Portuguese (1)

Códigos de análise morfológica de Robinson  (RMAC-por)
0.2 MB 15-Jul-2020
Author(s): Robinson, Maurice. A
Module version: 1.3
Description:
Dicionário dos códigos morfológicos usados em vários textos bíblicos. Vários módulos de Novo Testamento contêm esta marcação associada a cada palavra, permitindo a análise gramatical de cada uma delas. Este é o dicionário de morfologia oficial do 'The Word'.
     

 Spanish (1)

Códigos de Análisis Morfológico de Robinson  (RMAC-spa)
0.2 MB 15-Jul-2020
Author(s): Robinson, Maurice. A
Module version: 1.3
Description:
Esta es una lista de abreviaturas para los códigos de morfología que se utilzan en varios textos Bíblicos. Varios textos del Nuevo Testamento se etiquetan con un código de abreviatura después de cada palabra que explica su gramática, y esto diccionario contiene la explicación analítica de cada abreviatura. Este es el diccionario oficial de códigos morfológicos de 'theWORD'.
     


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for Christ indeed has once suffered for sins, [the] just for [the] unjust, that he might bring us to God;   (1 Peter 3:18a)